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Stone Lab REU Presentations 2017


Stone Lab REU Presentations 2017

Depth distribution of phytoplankton in western Lake Erie: Correlation between buoy and Fluoroprobe-derived data
Alex Johnson, Cleveland State University

Visual detection thresholds of walleye under varying turbidity
Andrew Oppliger, The Ohio State University

Intoxicated fishes: evaluating Aqui-S as an anesthetic for lake trout
Kearstin Findley, Rockford University

Determining nutrient limitations of benthic algae growth using a nutrient diffusing substrate
Marissa Musk, Michigan State University

Nutrient limitations in the central basin of Lake Erie
Madeline Lambrix, The Ohio State University

Effects of sediment resuspension on nutrient flux and nitrification in Lake Erie
Taylor Michael, Kent State University

Changes in forest composition in lowland island forests after the emerald ash borer
Camille Manoukian, The Ohio State University

Importance of Lake Erie island preserves for birds during breeding season
Stacey Clay, The Ohio State University

DURATION: ~ 2 hrs, 16 mins
Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

Harmful Algal Bloom Research: Ohio State's Dr. Justin Chaffin and Citizen Science

DURATION: 2 mins
Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

Stone Lab REU Presentations 2016


Stone Lab REU Presentations 2016

DURATION: ~ 2 hrs, 40 mins
Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

2016 Harmful Algal Bloom Forecast: Dr. Rick Stumpf and Dr. Laura Johnson

DURATION: ~ 1 min
Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

Twine Line Summer 2016


Stone Lab learning opportunities cover all ages, from fourth-graders through adults.

VOLUME: 38 ISSUE: 1 LENGTH: 19 pages
Twine Line

2016 Harmful Algal Bloom Forecast Preview: Ohio State's Dr. Conor Keitzer and Dr. Stuart Ludsin

DURATION: 2 mins
Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

2016 Harmful Algal Bloom Forecast Preview: Ohio State's Dr. Jay Martin

DURATION: ~ 1 min
Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

Stone Lab Guest Lecture: Ohio EPA's legislative priorities and challenges


Research Brief
Microbial modification of natural and anthropogenic compounds in engineered systems
Paula Mouser, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University

Guest Lecture
Ohio EPA’s legislative priorities and challenges
Laura Factor, Assistant Director, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency

DURATION: ~ 2 hrs, 13 mins
Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

Stone Lab Student Spotlight: Jeffry Hayes

Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

Ohio Sea Grant eNewsletter October 2015


Stone Lab Guest Lecture: Ohio State Research in Review

DURATION: ~ 1 hr, 44 mins
Broadcast, Podcast, Webinar

Oxygen use by Nitrification in the Hypolimnion and Sediments of Lake Erie


Nitrification is an oxygen consumptive process, consuming 2 mol of oxygen permol of ammonium oxidized. Hypolimnion
and sediment sampleswere collected during the summers of 2008–2010 in Lake Erie to determine the
total oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption fromnitrification by blocking nitrification with selective inhibitors.
Oxygen consumption by nitrification in the hypolimnion was 3.7 ± 2.9 (mean ± 1 SD) μmol O2/L/d,
with nitrification accounting for 32.6 ± 22.1% of the total oxygen consumption. Nitrification in the hypolimnion
contributed more to oxygen consumption in the eastern sites than western sites and was lowest in September.
The nitrification rate did not correlatewith environmental factors such as oxygen, nitrate or ammonium, or nitrifier
numbers. Oxygen consumption by nitrification in sediment slurries was 7.1 ± 5.8 μmol O2/g/d, with nitrification
accounting for 27.0 ± 19.2% of the total oxygen consumption with the lowest rates in July and the lowest
percentages in June. Oxygen consumption by nitrification in intact sediment coreswas 682 ± 61.1 μmol O2/m/d
with nitrification accounting for 30.4 ± 10.7% of the total oxygen consumption. Nitrification rates in intact cores
were generally highest in September. The proportion of oxygen consumed by nitrification corresponds closely
with what would be predicted from complete oxidation of a Redfield molecule (23%).While nitrification is unlikely
to be the dominant oxygen consumptive process, the rates observed in Lake Eriewere sufficient to theoretically
deplete a large portion of the hypolimnetic oxygen pool during the stratified period.

VOLUME: 40 ISSUE: 1 LENGTH: 5 pages

Organic and inorganic nitrogen utilization by nitrogen-stressed cyanobacteria during bloom conditions


Manuscript on nitrogen utilization by cyanobacteria


Cyanobacterial blooms often occur in lakes that have high phosphorus (P) and low nitrogen (N) concentrations, and the growth rate of the blooms is often constrained by N. For these reasons, many researchers have suggested that regulation of both P and N is required to control eutrophication. However, because N occurs in many bioavailable forms, regulation of a particular form may be beneficial rather than regulation of all N forms. To address how N-stressed cyanobacteria respond to various N inputs, N enrichment experiments (nitrate, ammonium, urea, and alanine) were performed during N-limited cyanobacterial blooms in Maumee and Sandusky Bays of Lake Erie and in Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM). Bioavailable N (nitrate, urea, and ammonium) concentrationswere also determined. Microcystis aeruginosa dominated the Maumee Bay bloom, where the highest growth rates were in response to ammonium additions, and lowest growth rates were in response to nitrate. Urea and the amino acid alanine resulted in intermediate growth rates. Planktothrix agardhii dominated the Sandusky Bay and GLSM blooms, where nitrate, ammonium, and urea addition resulted in similar growth rates. Additions of alanine did not stimulate growth of the Planktothrix blooms. Incubations using stable isotope 15N showed the cyanobacteria had a preference for ammonium, but the other forms were also assimilated in the presence of ammonium. These results show that cyanobacterial blooms will assimilate multiple forms of N to support growth. Thus, if lake managers do decide that N abatement is necessary, then all forms of bioavailable N need to be constrained.

DOI: 10.1007/s10811-013-0118-0 VOLUME: 26 ISSUE: 1 LENGTH: 10 pages

Length-Weight Relationships of the Mimic Shiner Notropis volucellua (Cope 1865) in the Western Basin of Lake Erie


Gender relationships between total and standard length (mm) were compared to weight (mg) in the mimic shiner,
Notropis volucellus for the western Lake Erie basin in the vicinity of the Bass Islands. Length and weight relationship (n=300),
length-frequency distribution, and sex ratios (n=884) from a single date from Gibraltar Island in June 2012 were analyzed for
coastal shoreline and tributaries. A strong positive correlation was found between length and weight for both males and females.
In females, a significant positive correlation exists between standard length (SL) and body weight (F=671.5, d.f.=135) and between
total length (TL) and body weight (F=681.4, d.f.=135). In males, there was also a strong positive correlation between SL and body
weight (F=1744.9, d.f.=160) and between TL and body weight (F=1656.6, d.f.=160). Combining data for the two sexes helped
determine a strong relationship between SL and body weight (F=1908.3, d.f.=299) and between TL and body weight (F=1885.9,
d.f.=299) that was consistent with the results from the individual sexes. The growth patterns of male and female mimic shiner
differed significantly for both SL (F=0.76, p>0.05, d.f.=159-134) and TL (F=0.76, p>0.05, d.f.=159-134). Age I females ranged
from 29–51 mm TL and Age I males ranged from 30–46 mm TL based on 884 individuals from Gibraltar Island. Age II females
ranged from 57–61 mm TL and Age II males ranged from 54–56 mm TL. Mimic shiner exhibit indeterminate growth and gender
influences growth patterns.

VOLUME: 112 ISSUE: 2 LENGTH: 6 pages

Research Overview: Holocene Development of Lake Erie


. This paper reviews and summarizes research on the Holocene evolutionary history of Lake Erie. New bathymetric data published in 1998 and more
recently by the National Geophysical Data Center reveal lake-fl oor features indicative of former, now inundated, shorelines. These data combined with other
recent research, permit a detailed reconstruction of Lake Erie’s complex history since the Wisconsinan ice sheet retreated some 12,000 years ago, ending a
series of glacial lakes and initiating a series of post-glacial lake stages. The lakes that have occupied the Lake Erie Basin are grouped into three phases. The
oldest phase, 14,400 to 12,000 years ago, had lake stages associated with glaciers in the basin and were higher than present Lake Erie. The middle phase,
12,000 to 4,700 years ago, had lake stages isolated from Upper Lakes drainage during a dryer climatic period and were below the present level of Lake Erie. In
the last phase, from 4,700 to present, the Lake Erie Basin received Upper Lakes drainage and the water level rose to a slightly higher stage before establishing
the present elevation through outlet erosion.

VOLUME: 112 ISSUE: 2 LENGTH: 13 pages

DNA Barcoding to Confirm Morphological Traits and Determine Relative Abundance of Burrowing Mayfly Species in Western Lake Erie


Burrowing mayfly species of the genus Hexagenia are well known indicators of environmental health in lakes and rivers. Two species, H. limbata and H. rigida, are indistinguishable as nymphs and as adult females. Our objectives were to develop a genetic technique to distinguish between the two species and identify morphological features that separate cryptic nymphs and adult females. Fifty nymphs were collected before emergence from 10 sites throughout the western basin of Lake Erie in 2004 and 2005. Using known specimens of adult aerial male H. limbata and H. rigida, we used the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene to identify a 16 base pair (bp) difference between species. DNA sequencing confirmed correct species identification based on differences in abdominal pigmentation patterns on adult female imagos in 19 of 20 cases; the lone exception was a female with very faint pigmentation. Pigmentation patterns between species were consistent on nymphs, subimagos and imagos of both sexes. Populations of both species are panmictic across the western basin of Lake Erie, but H. limbata is the numerically dominant species, representing 70 to 100% of nymphs at sites in both years. A separate lineage of H limbata was discovered in the samples. The ability to distinguish nymphs of the two species will aid in developing more sensitive ecosystem indicators.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jglr.2011.11.010 VOLUME: 38 ISSUE: 1 LENGTH: 6 pages

Philopatry and Vagrancy of White Bass (Morone chrysops) Spawning in the Sandusky River: Evidence of Metapopulation Structure in Western Lake Erie Using Otolith Chemistry


Although natal homing and philopatry are well studied in anadromous salmon, few studies have investigated philopatric behavior in large, freshwater systems. In western Lake Erie, white bass (Morone chrysops) undergo seasonal spawning migrations from the open-water regions of Lake Erie to nearshore reef complexes and tributaries. The three primary spawning locations in Lake Erie are within 80 km of each other and are not separated by physical barriers. We used naturally occurring differences in otolith strontium concentrations among major spawning locations to address philopatry and vagrancy to the Sandusky River spawning location. Most individuals spawning in the Sandusky River were natal to this river (73%). No statistically significant differences in the extent of homing by sex or age of spawning were found, although a potential pattern of decreased homing with increased age of fish was observed. Given the proportion of vagrant individuals we found spawning in the Sandusky River (27%), it is unlikely that Lake Erie white bass spawning populations are genetically distinct. Furthermore, the white bass population in Lake Erie appears to be structured as a metapopulation, with non-philopatric individuals serving as a link between spawning populations.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jglr.2011.08.012 VOLUME: 37 ISSUE: 4 LENGTH: 6 pages

Expansion of Tubenose Gobies Proterorhinus semilunaris into Western Lake Erie and Potential Effects on Native Species


The Eurasian freshwater tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris (formerly Proterorhinus marmoratus) invaded the Laurentian Great Lakes in the 1990s, presumably via ballast water from transoceanic cargo ships. Tubenose gobies spread throughout Lake St. Clair, its tributaries, and the Detroit River system, and also are present in the Duluth-Superior harbor of Lake Superior. Using seines and bottom trawls, we collected 113 tubenose gobies between July 2007 and August 2009 at several locations in western Lake Erie. The number and range of sizes of specimens collected suggest that that tubenose gobies have become established and self-sustaining in the western basin of Lake Erie. Tubenose gobies reached maximum densities in sheltered areas with abundant macrophyte growth, which also is their common habitat in native northern Black Sea populations. The diet of tubenose gobies was almost exclusively invertebrates, suggesting dietary overlap with other benthic fishes, such as darters (Etheostoma spp. and Percina sp.), madtoms (Noturus spp.), and sculpins (Cottus spp.). A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was identified, which is the most common haplotype found in the original colonization area in the Lake St. Clair region, suggesting a founder effect. Tubenose gobies, like round gobies Neogobius melanostomus, have early life stages that drift owing to vertical migration, which probably allowed them to spread from areas of colonization. The Lake St. Clair-Lake Erie corridor appears to have served as an avenue for them to spread to the western basin of Lake Erie, and abundance of shallow macrophyte-rich habitats may be a key factor facilitating their further expansion within Lake Erie and the remainder of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

DOI: 10.1007/s10530-011-9962-5 VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 12 LENGTH: 9 pages

The Effects of Dreissenid Mussels on the Survival and Condition of Burrowing Mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) in Western Lake Erie


Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia limbata and H. rigida) are once again prominent members of the benthic community in western Lake Erie. However, this community is now dominated by dreissenid mussels. We conducted a laboratory experiment and field sampling to investigate whether survival and condition of Hexagenia were affected by the presence, density, and quality of dreissenid mussels. In a laboratory experiment, Hexagenia survival was higher in microcosms without dreissenid mussels. We also found Hexagenia density to be higher at field sites with low dreissenid density, suggesting that Hexagenia survival is higher in these areas as well. In microcosm treatments with low dreissenid density, Hexagenia survival was higher in treatments with live dreissenids than in treatments containing only dreissenid shells. These findings suggest that while dreissenid shells degrade the quality of soft sediments for Hexagenia, some of the negative effect is offset by the presence of live dreissenids. The positive effect of live dreissenids is likely due to additional food resources made available to Hexagenia by the filtering activity of dreissenids. Neither dreissenid density nor shell “type” (shells alone or live dreissenids in shells) had an effect on Hexagenia condition. Thus, the interactions between these dominant benthic invertebrates are complex. Recovery of Hexagenia populations in western Lake Erie is likely affected by both changing environmental conditions due to anthropogenic activities and the introduction of exotic species into the benthic community. The results are likely to be continued instability of the benthic food web and unpredictable consequences for human utilization of this ecosystem.

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2011.04.006 VOLUME: 37 ISSUE: 3 LENGTH: 5 pages

Identifying Relationships between Catches of Spawning Condition Yellow Perch and Environmental Variables in the Western Basin of Lake Erie


Although the reproductive behavior of yellow perch Perca
flavescens has been well documented in small systems, relatively
little is known about the spawning preferences of yellow perch in
large systems, such as the Laurentian Great Lakes. During 2006
and 2007, we compared the presence and abundance adult yellow
perch during the spring spawning season with environmental
variables in the western basin of Lake Erie. We also estimated the
timing of yellow perch spawning by comparing the relative abundance
of gravid and spent females collected in our trawls and then
comparing the proportion of gravid females with environmental
conditions at our sampling sites. Overall, the probability of catching
adult yellow perch and the catch per unit effort increased with
increasing bottom temperatures in the spring, whereas the probability
of catching gravid females increased with increasing Secchi
depth. However, the relationships between our catch metrics and
environmental variables were not consistent across years, possibly
as a result of the very strong 2003 year-class, which became
first-year spawners in 2006.We also documented that yellow perch
spawning occurred when bottom temperatures were between 11◦C
and 15◦C in the western basin; these temperatures were reached
on different dates in different parts of the basin and in different years. Thus, we suggest that management agencies consider basing
the start of the commercial fishing season on prevailing bottom
temperatures rather than using a set date across years and sites.

DOI: 10.1080/00028487.2011.545018 VOLUME: 140 ISSUE: 1 LENGTH: 5 pages

Lake Erie Nutrient Loading and Harmful Algal Blooms: Research Findings and Management Implications

LENGTH: 16 pages
Technical Summary

Summer and Winter Spatial Habitat Use by the Lake Erie Watersnake


In an effort to provide information to guide habitat management for the Lake Erie watersnake Nerodia sipedon
insularum, a federally threatened and Ohio state endangered species, we used radiotelemetry to obtain spatial habitat
data for adult snakes during the summer active season and during winter hibernation. During the summer active
season, terrestrial habitat use was limited to a narrow band of shoreline. Among individuals, maximum distance inland
from shore ranged from 1 to 50 m (mean = 8 m) and linear extent of shoreline ranged from 30 to 1,360 m (mean =
261 m). Winter hibernation occurred at varying distances inland with individual hibernation sites ranging from 1 to
580 m (mean = 29 m) from shore. Habitat use did not differ between males and females. Existing U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service habitat management guidelines suggest that ground-disturbing activities within potential hibernation areas
(defined as terrestrial habitat within 161 m of shore) should be avoided in winter to prevent harm to hibernating
snakes. They suggest further that excavation and removal of shrubs, standing or downed trees, root masses, animal
burrows, piled rocks, cliffs, or bedrock within 21 m of shore should be avoided in summer to prevent harm to active
snakes. Given that Lake Erie watersnakes have recovered to the point where delisting is being proposed, these habitat
guidelines appear to be sufficient. However, maintaining voluntary compliance with habitat guidelines and meeting
the need for continued public outreach will be vital to ensure long-term persistence.

DOI: 10.3996/052010-JFWM-013 VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 2 LENGTH: 8 pages

Oxyradical scavenging capacity by the S9 fraction of Hexagenia Spp. Nymphs From the Western Basin of Lake Erie: Neutralisation of Three Potent Oxidants


Oxidative stress is a general response of aquatic organisms to environmental contamination. Metals and organic compounds capable of redox cycling cause proliferation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within organisms. Harm results from ROS-mediated DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, enzyme degradation and compromised intermediary metabolism. Variations in concentrations or activities of antioxidants have been proposed as biomarkers of toxicant-mediated oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. The total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay provides an index of biological resistance to ROS. Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) are key indicator species of the health of numerous water bodies, including Lake Erie. TOSC has been used to evaluate the ROS scavenging capacity of tissues from a number of marine and freshwater invertebrates. This is the first study to evaluate ROS scavenging capacity in Hexagenia nymphs. Hexagenia nymphal tissue was homogenised in TRIS buffer containing a protease inhibitor cocktail and then differentially centrifuged to obtain a 9000 g supernatant (S9). The specific TOSC values (±SD, n=3) per μg protein are 2.08±0.43 for peroxyl radicals, 3.06±0.19 for hydroxyl radicals and 0.36±0.02 for peroxynitrite (n=3 to 4 determinations). These values for peroxyl radical scavenging capacity were equivalent to 11.9% and 77.0% that of Trolox (a water soluble analogue of vitamin E) and reduced glutathione TOSC equivalents, respectively, on a per μg basis. These results show that Hexagenia nymphal S9 is capable of neutralising peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals effectively, but neutralises peroxynitrite considerably more weakly. The efficacy of this parameter as a biomarker of exposure to or effect of environmental contaminants will require controlled exposure analysis.

DOI: 10.1080/02757541003643495 VOLUME: 26 ISSUE: 2 LENGTH: 9 pages

Transient Social–Ecological Stability: the Effects of Invasive Species and Ecosystem Restoration on Nutrient Management Compromise in Lake Erie


Together, lake ecosystems and local human activity form complex social–ecological systems (SESs) characterized by feedback loops and discontinuous change. Researchers in diverse fields have suggested that complex systems do not have single stable equilibria in the long term because of inevitable perturbation. During this study, we sought to address the general question of whether or not stable social–ecological equilibria exist in highly stressed and managed lacustrine systems. Using an integrated human–biophysical model, we investigated the impacts of a species invasion and ecosystem restoration on SES equilibrium, defined here as a compromise in phosphorus management among opposing stakeholders, in western Lake Erie. Our integrated model is composed of a calibrated ecological submodel representing Sandusky Bay, and a phosphorus management submodel that reflects the societal benefits and costs of phosphorus regulation. These two submodels together form a dynamic feedback loop that includes freshwater ecology, ecosystem services, and phosphorus management. We found that the invasion of dreissenid mussels decreased ecosystem resistance to eutrophication, necessitating increased phosphorus management to preserve ecosystem services and thus creating the potential for a shift in social–ecological equilibrium. Additionally, our results suggest that net benefits in the region following the invasion of dreissenids may never again reach the pre-invasion level if on-site phosphorus control is the sole management lever. Further demonstrating transient system stability, large-scale wetland restoration shifted points of management compromise to states characterized by less on-site phosphorus management and higher environmental quality, resulting in a significant increase in net benefits in the region. We conclude that lacustrine SESs are open and dynamic, and we recommend that future models of these systems emphasize site-specific perturbation over equilibrium, thereby aiding the development of management plans for building system resistance to undesirable change that are both flexible and sustainable in an unknowable future.

VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 1 LENGTH: 28 pages

Celebrating 30 Years of Ohio Sea Grant

LENGTH: 8 pages

Great Lakes Regional Research Information Network Ad

LENGTH: 2 pages
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